Turning an incoming neutral beam into a charged beam is therefore of critical importance.
Particle beams can quickly destroy the fragile mirrors of lasers being used for counter-beaming, in which they try to send laser beams back up an optics train to damage the internal components.
All neutralization requires an input of energy to strip an electron off a neutral ion, or releases energy when adding electrons to a positive ion.
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In the real world, the neutralization disturbance will be greater than the theoretical minimum.A small circular accelerator that can fit inside a spaceship would be limited in the particle energies it can achieve and would have multiple sources of inefficiency.Weaponized protons would designed to have at most 250 MeV left over after passing through shielding to prevent over-penetration.A 1 MW accelerator should be prepared to lose 50 grams of helium per second.A circular accelerator can be used to bring particles up to speed and then pass them onto a linac for the final boost.1,000.75 m/s in carbon,.14 m/s in steel.Download the installer from our website (using the download).All in all, the particle beams are likely to be detected by sensors but unlikely to be visible to bystanders.
Also pay attention to whether the value is reported at the entrance, midway or at the exit of the accelerator.
This get much worse for heavier particles, with Cesium penetrating 112,817 times less than hydrogen.
The cavities are simply 'mirror boxes' for radio waves.
If we want particles with an energy of 100 MeV, we divide the energy by the number of charges and the acceleration gradient to find the accelerators length.
An ideal particle beam weapon would have a high power output, narrow divergence and minimal penetration.The downside to this method is that you need an additional accelerator for the electrons and can only neutralize positive ions, but it is a small price to pay for the low divergence beams that are produced.A 250 MeV Cesium particle would only penetrate a distance of only.88 micrometers into graphite.4 micrometers into steel.Deflecting particle beams is a potentially even more efficient solution.It is capable of handling all elements and achieving very high charge states by bombarding ions with an energetic electron beam again and again.Electronics can survive a dose of 100 kJ/kg if they are extremely radiation hardened (at the cost of weight and performance).That equation applies only to negative H ions.Uranium is great as it stops 250 MeV protons within.6 cm and 3 GeV after.3 meters, but there is the danger of significant secondary radiation in the form of neutrons.The ionization energy for a negative ion can be very low, such.47 eV for Cesium instead.89.Particle beams are said to spread too quickly to be used over long distances.We can also imagine a Particle Beam Thermal Rocket engine, where the beam is used to directly heat propellant.